Demographic indicators in Serbia show a long-term negative trend comparing to global demographic trends. Socioeconomic factors significantly inﬂuence demographic trends. Causes of mortality also represent an area that needs to be systematically and urgently regulated as a large number of citizens die of chronic non-communicable diseases. Economic migration cannot be prevented without adequate social and economic policies. The disappearance of Serbs from this territory is forecast for 2225 if such a trend continues. Rural areas are devastated while migration to cities is present. The solution is in economic development, adequate public health and the forma ton of the Funds for Demographic Development.